How genetics works: transmission of hereditary traits

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How genetics works
How genetics works. Source: medlineplus.gov

Genetics is a branch of biology that studies the transmission of traits from one generation to another. SSPDaily has prepared a detailed overview of the fundamental principles and mechanisms of genetic inheritance.

Inheritance occurs in a process called meiosis, a specialized type of cell division that produces gametes (sperm and eggs). When sperm and eggs fuse, the genetic material combines to form a new individual with a unique set of hereditary characteristics. Understanding the principles of genetics is necessary to study the inheritance of traits and diseases, and even to predict genetic outcomes.

Detailed explanation

The principles and mechanisms involved in the transmission of hereditary traits are very complex. The main role is played by DNA, the hereditary material found in almost all organisms. Genes - specific sections of DNA - contain instructions for the production of proteins.

Hereditary traits are transmitted through the process of meiosis and fertilization. Genetic information can be transmitted by both dominant and recessive inheritance. The discovery of the structure of DNA, the mapping (the process of finding the locations of genes on each chromosome) of the human genome, and advances in genetic engineering have greatly expanded our understanding of genetics.

Components of genetics

The components of genetics include genes, DNA, chromosomes, and alleles. Genes are specific segments of DNA that carry instructions for the production of proteins. DNA is a molecule that carries the genetic information of an organism.

Chromosomes are DNA-filled structures in the nucleus of cells. Alleles are alternative forms of genes that occupy the same place on a chromosome. Knowing these components is very important for understanding the transmission of hereditary traits.

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